Nguyễn Văn Thắng, Bùi Huyền Anh


This eight-week quasi-experimental research was conducted to figure out how cognitive reading strategies affect non-English major students’ reading comprehension (RC) at Language School and their attitudes towards CRSI. Two intact classes with 36 students were divided into two groups, TOEIC119, control group (CG) and TOEIC120, experimental group (EG). Data were collected by means of RC tests and attitude questionnaire. Data collected from tests were analyzed by means of T-test and test scores to measure students’ RC proficiency before and after the intervention. Data collected from the questionnaire were calculated Cronbach’s alpha and converted into percentage to investigate students’ attitudes towards CRS. The results revealed that students’ RC proficiency increased significantly in both two groups but the improvement of EG students was greater than that of CG. Furthermore, the findings showed that students had positive attitudes towards CRSI. Therefore, the study concludes that CRS may contribute to the students’ RC ability and recommends that CRS should be applied in teaching reading.


Cognitive reading strategies; cognitive reading strategies instruction; reading comprehension; attitudes

Full Text:

PDF (250-270)


Ahmadi, M.R., Ismail, H.N., & Abdullah, M.K.K. (2013). The importance of metacognitive reading strategy awareness in reading comprehension. International Journal of Education (UE), 2(1), 235-244.

Al-Nujaidi, A.H. (2003). The relationship between vocabulary size, reading strategies, and reading comprehension of EFL learners in Saudi Arabia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Oklahoma State University.

Alexander, J.E., & Filler, R.C. (1976). Attitudes and reading. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.

Anh, B.T.V. (2012). Teacher’s attitudes towards and practice in cognitive reading strategies instruction. Unpublised Master thesis. University of Languages and International Studies.

Anne Ratna, S. (2014). The use of cognitive reading strategies to enhance EFL students’ reading comprehension. International Journal of Education (UE), 2(1), 1-11.

Block, E.L. (1992). See how they read: Comprehension monitoring of L1 and L2 readers. TESOL Quarterly, 26(2), 319-343.

Carrel, P.L., Pharis, B.G., & Liberto, J.C. (1989). Metacognitive strategy training for ESL Reading. TESOL Quarterly, 23(4), 647-677.

Clements, T.B. (2011). The role of cognitive and metacognitive reading comprehension strategies in the reading and interpretation of mathematical word problem texts: Reading clinicians’ perceptions of domain relevance and elementary students’ cognitive strategy use. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Central Florida.

Cohen, A.D. (2003). The learner's side of foreign language learning: Where do styles, strategies, and tasks meet?. IRAL, 41(4), 279-292.

El-Bashbishy, E.M. (1993). An ESP Unit for the pre-service students in the department of ready-made clothes. Pharos: An ESP Newsletter, (1). ESP Center: Alexandria University.

Grellet, F. (1981). Developing reading skills: A practical guide to reading comprehension exercises. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Honsefeld, C. (1977). A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and non-successful second language learners. System, 5(2), 110-123.

Ibrahim, M.I.M., & Saman, A.A. (2012). Perception and attitude of general practitioners regarding generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: A questionnaire based study. Southern Med Review, 5(1), 22-30.

Jafari, S.M., & Shokrpour, N. (2012). The reading strategies used by Iranian ESP students to comprehend authentic expository texts in English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 1(4), 102-113.

Little, Q., & Richards, R.T. (2000). Teaching learners-learners teaching: Using reciprocal teaching to improve comprehension strategies in challenged readers. Reading improvement, 37(4), 190-195.

Longheed, L. (2009). Building skills for the New TOEIC test (2nd ed.). US: Pearson Education.

Mathewson, G.C. (1994). Model of attitude influence upon reading and learning to read. In M.R.R. Ruddell & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoritical models and processes of reading (pp. 1121-1161). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

May, Y., & Wang, C. (2010). An empirical study of reading self-efficacy and the use of reading strategies in the Chinese EFL context. Asian EFL Journal, 12(2), 144-162.

McKenna, M.C. (1994). Toward a model of reading attitude acquisition. In E.C.M. Castle (Ed.), Fostering the love of reading: The affective domain in reading education (pp. 18-40). Neward, DE: International Reading Association.

Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.

O’Malley, J.M., & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, R.L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

Ozek, Y., & Civelek, M. (2006). A study on the use of cognitive reading strategies by ELT students. Retrieved on May 30th, 2018 from:

Park, Y. (2010). Korean EFL college students’ reading strategy use to comprehend authentic expository/technical texts in English. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Kansas.

Phakiti, A. (2003). A closer look at the relationship of cognitive and metacognitive strategy use to EFL reading achievement test performance. Language Testing, 20(1), 26-56.

Sitthiprom, E. (2012). Developing the students’ reading comprehension through cognitive reading strategies of the first year students of Sman 16 Makassar. Retrieved on May 30th, 2018 from:

Smith, M.C. (1990). The development and use of an instrument for assessing adults' attitudes toward reading. Journal of Research & Development in Education, 23(3), 156-161.

Snow, C. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Sanata Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Strevens, P. (1977). New orientations in the teaching of English. Great Britain: Oxford University Press.

Syatriana, E. (2012). Developing the students’ reading comprehension through cognitive reading strategies of the first year students of Sman 16 Makassar. Retrieved on May 30th, 2019 from:

Tarkesley, K. (2003). The roots of reading comprehension instruction. In Handbook of research on reading comprehension (pp. 27-55). Greensboro, USA: Routledge.

Thuy, N.T.B. (2015). Cognitive strategies used by university non-English majored students in reading comprehension. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 15, 16-22.

Taylor, A., & Malarcher, C. (2013). Starter TOEIC (3rd edition.). Vietnam: Tri Viet.

Trew, G. (2008). Tactics for TOEIC listening and reading test. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Williams, M., & Burden, R. (1997). Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Williamson, T. (2006). Can cognition be factorized into internal and external components?. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Woolley, G. (2011). Reading comprehension. Springer: Dordrecht.


  • There are currently no refbacks.